U.S. IOOS: Our Eyes on Our Oceans, Coasts, and Great Lakes.
The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) provides high-quality data and information on current and future states of the oceans and Great Lakes from the global scale of ocean basins to local scales of coastal ecosystems.
Societal goals of IOOS
IOOS provides data in forms and at rates required by decision makers to address seven societal goals:
Improve predictions of climate change and weather and theireffects on coastal communities and the nation
Improve the safety and efficiency of maritime operations
Mitigate the effects of natural hazards more effectively
Improve national and homeland security
Reduce public health risks
Protect and restore healthy coastal ecosystems more effectively
Enable the sustained use of ocean and coastal resources
ICES identifies 'substantial' species distribution shifts Denmark
A total of 16 out of 21 species examined by experts of the Workshop on Fish Distribution Shifts in response to a request from the EC have shown changes in their distributions across the northeast Atlantic since 1985, with hake and mackerel shifting the most.