Chionoecetes is a genus of crabs that live in the northern Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.
Other names for crabs in this genus include "queen crab" (in Canada) and "spider crab" – they are known by different names in different areas of the world. The generic name Chionoecetes means snow (χιών, chion) inhabitant (οἰκητης, oiketes); opilio means shepherd, and C. opilio is the primary species referred to as snow crab. Marketing strategies, however, employ snow crab for anything in the genus Chionoecetes. The name "snow crab" refers to their being commonly found in cold northern oceans.